Mohammed in a time line.

594: Muhammad, at the age of 25, became the manager of the business of Lady Khadija, a successful merchant in Mecca. This positioned him well in society, and also allowed him to travel and expand his worldview.

595: At the age of 26, Muhammad married Khadija, a 40-year-old wealthy and successful businesswoman in Mecca, marking a significant union in the social and commercial life of the city.

610: Muhammad, aged 40, claimed to have a religious experience on Mount Hira that changed his life. This was the beginning of his prophetic revelations, where he reported being visited by the Angel Gabriel, marking the start of his prophethood.

615: Muhammad publicly preached his revelations and invited the Hashimites to adopt Islam, marking the inception of public proselytization of the new faith.

615: Persecution of Muslims by the Quraysh, the dominant tribe in Mecca, intensified, leading a group of Muslims to seek refuge in Abyssinia (modern-day Ethiopia), marking the first Hijrah (migration) in the history of Islam.

621: Abu Jahl, a leading figure of the Quraysh, became the leader of a mounting opposition to Muslims in Mecca, and organized a boycott of the Hashim clan, to which Muhammad belonged, increasing the social and economic pressure on the nascent Muslim community.

622: Around 75 converts from Yathrib (later renamed Medina) took the two Pledges of al-Aqaba, professing their faith in Islam and promising to protect Muhammad from all danger, marking a key shift in the political balance of power.

622: The Hijra: This was the emigration of Muhammad and his followers to Yathrib, marking the foundation of the first Islamic community and the start of significant social and economic reforms. This is also the starting point of the Islamic (Hijri) calendar.

624: Following political disagreements, Muhammad had a fallout with his Jewish supporters in Medina because they refused to recognize him as a prophet and adopt Islam. This led to a significant shift in the religious orientation of the Islamic community, with Mecca replacing Jerusalem as the Qibla (direction of prayer).

March 15, 624: At the Battle of Badr, Muhammad and his followers achieved a decisive victory over an army from Mecca. Abu Jahl, Muhammad’s chief rival in Mecca, was killed in the battle, significantly weakening the opposition to Muhammad in Mecca.

627: Meccan leader Abu Sufyan led a force of 10,000 men to besiege Muhammad’s forces in Medina during the Battle of the Trench, but was unsuccessful. After the battle, Muhammad ordered the execution of the Banu Qurayza Jews, accusing them of aiding the Meccans.

627: Muhammad established a confederation between his followers in Mecca and the eight Arab clans in Medina, through the Constitution of Medina, which set the framework for a new political entity in Arabia.

628: Muhammad led about 1,600 men on a pilgrimage to Mecca (Umrah). Their passage was blocked by the Meccans, but this standoff led to the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, bringing about a truce between the Muslims and the Quraysh of Mecca.

629: After a group of Muslims was attacked, Muhammad considered the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah to be violated, and prepared to attack Mecca, marking a significant escalation in tensions.

630: Muhammad, leading an army of 30,000 Muslims, conquered Mecca with little resistance. He declared Mecca as the spiritual center of Islam, which hosts the Kaaba, towards which Muslims across the world turn in prayer.

632: Muhammad died, marking the end of his prophethood. His father-in-law, Abu Bakr, became the first caliph, setting in motion the era of the Rashidun Caliphate. Abu Bakr’s leadership, and later Umar’s, marked a period of significant military expansion, with successful campaigns against the Byzantine and Persian Empires.

632-34: Following the death of Prophet Muhammad, widespread tribal rebellions broke out across Arabia, challenging the central authority of the newly-formed Islamic state. Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s successor as the first Caliph (khalifa), managed to suppress these uprisings and reestablish the authority of the Islamic government. Concurrently, he commissioned Arab armies for the conquest of Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) and the Levant.

633: Arab Muslim forces, under the leadership of Khalid ibn Walid, succeeded in conquering regions of Syria and Iraq, marking a significant expansion of the Islamic state beyond the Arabian Peninsula.

634: Arab Muslim forces achieved a significant victory against the Byzantines at the Battle of Ajnadayn in Palestine, marking a crucial step in the conquest of Levantine territories.

634-644: Umar ibn al-Khattab, who served as the second Caliph following Abu Bakr’s death, oversaw a period of rapid Islamic expansion. Muslim forces managed to subjugate key regions including Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia (Iraq), and Persia (Iran), establishing garrisons and progressively taking control of financial and administrative structures in these regions.

635: In an expansive thrust eastward, Arab Muslim forces began their conquest of Persia and continued their campaigns in Syria.

635: The Byzantine city of Damascus, a crucial stronghold and a symbol of Byzantine power in the region, fell to Arab Muslim forces.

August 20, 636: In the decisive Battle of Yarmuk, Byzantine forces, aiming to reclaim territories including Damascus and Edessa, faced a significant defeat at the hands of Muslim forces led by Khalid ibn Walid. The result of this battle left Syria vulnerable to Muslim conquest.

636: Arab Muslim forces, under the leadership of Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, defeated a Sasanian (Persian) army at the Battle of Qadisiyya. A subsequent victory at Jalula, near Ctesiphon, further consolidated Muslim power in the region.

637: Arab Muslim forces successfully occupied Ctesiphon, the capital of the Persian Empire, marking a key event in the gradual Islamic conquest of Persia.

637: The Levantine region of Syria was fully conquered by Muslim forces.

637: Jerusalem, a city of significant religious importance, fell to the invading Muslim forces.

638: Caliph Umar I entered Jerusalem, signifying the Islamic control over the city.

639-642: The strategic conquest of Egypt was carried out under the leadership of ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, culminating with the taking of Alexandria in 642. The same period also saw the capture of the seaport of Caesarea in Palestine, marking the end of the Byzantine presence in Syria.

641: Islamic influence spread further into Egypt following the military successes of the previous year.

641: Muslim forces under the leadership of Abd-al-Rahman conquered southern areas of Azerbaijan, Daghestan, Georgia, and Armenia, expanding the Islamic empire’s reach into the Caucasus region.

641: Amr ibn al-As led the conquest of the Byzantine city of Alexandria in Egypt. Following this, the remaining contents of the Great Library of Alexandria were burned. ‘Amr ibn al-‘As is credited with establishing al-Fustat, the first Muslim city in Egypt, and constructing the country’s first mosque.

644: Following the death of the second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, a member of the Umayyad family which initially opposed Prophet Muhammad, ascends to the Caliphate. Despite some factions rallying for the appointment of Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, Uthman becomes the third Caliph. He initiates military campaigns into North Africa, further extending the reach of the Islamic Empire.

649: Muawiya I, a representative of the Umayyad family, leads a military expedition against the island of Cyprus, successfully sacking the capital, Salamis-Constantia, after a brief siege, and looting the remainder of the island.

652: Muslim forces launch an attack on Sicily from their base in Ifriqiya (modern-day Tunisia). This denotes a significant step in the Islamic expansion into the Mediterranean region.

653: Muawiya I commands a raid against Rhodes, resulting in the removal of the remnants of the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. These remnants are transported back to Syria and reportedly sold as scrap metal.

654: Cyprus falls under the dominion of Muawiya I, with a significant military garrison stationed on the island. The island remains under Islamic control until 0966.

655: At the naval Battle of the Masts, Muslim forces led by Uthman bin Affan secure a notable victory against Byzantine forces under Emperor Constant II off the coast of Lycia. This battle is regarded as a pivotal moment in the weakening of Byzantine naval power.

661-680: Mu’awiya, the founder of the Umayyad dynasty, becomes the Caliph and relocates the capital from Mecca to Damascus. The Umayyad dynasty maintains control over the Islamic empire until 750. During this period, disagreements over leadership lead to the formation of the Shiite religious sect, who advocate for leadership to be based on the hereditary descent of Ali. In opposition, the Sunnites favor a more historical, evolutionary approach to the selection of the Caliphate.

662: The Fertile Crescent and Persia fell under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates until 1258 and 820 respectively. The subsequent year, Egypt also succumbs to the Umayyad and Abbasid rule, a reign that would last until 868 A.D.

667: Arab forces occupy Chalcedon, posing a significant threat to Constantinople. Simultaneously, Sicily experiences another assault by Muslim forces originating from Tunisia.

668: The First Siege of Constantinople begins, lasting intermittently for seven years. Muslim forces, after failed siege attempts, generally retreat to the nearby island of Cyzicus during the winters, resuming their attacks in the warmer seasons. The Byzantine defenders utilize “Greek Fire”, a weapon feared by the Arab forces due to its ability to burn through ships, shields, and flesh, and its resistance to extinguishment. Ultimately, Muawiyah is compelled to negotiate with Byzantine Emperor Constans, pleading for safe passage for his surviving troops, a request granted in exchange for an annual tribute.

669: The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates extend their conquest to Morocco in North Africa, establishing a rule that would last until 800.

672: Arab forces, under Muawiya I, seize control of the island of Rhodes, further strengthening their grip on the Mediterranean region.

672: The ‘seven-year’ Arab Siege of Constantinople begins, a critical event in the prolonged Muslim-Byzantine conflicts.

674: The Islamic conquest extends to the Indus River, marking a significant milestone in the expansion of the Islamic Empire towards the Indian subcontinent.

August 23, 676: Charles Martel, also known as Charles the Hammer, is born in Herstal, Wallonia, Belgium. Born out of wedlock to Pippin II, Charles, as the Mayor of the Palace of the kingdom of the Franks, would later lead a force of Christians against a Muslim raiding party near Poitiers (or Tours). Many historians believe this victory effectively halted the advancement of Islam against Christianity in the West.

677: A large Muslim fleet attacks Constantinople with the aim of capturing the city. However, the Byzantines, using Greek Fire, repel the attack so effectively that the Muslims are forced to pay an indemnity to the Emperor.

680: Leo III the Isaurian, a future Byzantine Emperor, is born along the Turkish-Syrian border in the Syrian province of Commagene. Leo’s tactical skills would later play a critical role in repelling the second Arab Muslim siege of Constantinople in 0717, shortly after his ascension to the throne.

688: Emperor Justinian II and Caliph al-Malik sign a peace treaty, rendering Cyprus a neutral territory. Despite the ongoing conflict between the Byzantines and Arabs, they jointly rule Cyprus for the next 300 years.

691: Hisham, the future 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty, is born. Under his reign, Muslim forces would penetrate deepest into Western Europe before their advance was halted by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 0732.

698: Muslims capture Carthage, a critical center in North Africa.

700: Muslims from Pantelleria raid Sicily, which is part of the Byzantine Empire.

711: The Islamic Empire, following further conquests of Egypt, Spain, and North Africa, encompasses all of the Persian Empire and much of the old Roman world. Muslims also start the conquest of Sindh in Afghanistan.

April 711: Tariq ibn Malik, a Berber officer, crosses the strait between Africa and Europe with a group of Muslims, initiating the Muslim conquest of Spain (referred to as al-Andalus by Muslims). The landing spot becomes known as Jabel Tarik (Mountain of Tarik), now known as Gibraltar.

July 19, 711: At the Battle of Guadalete, Tariq ibn Ziyad kills King Rodrigo (or Roderic), the Visigoth ruler of Spain. The Iberian Peninsula would largely fall under Islamic control by 718.

712: Musa ibn Nusayr, the Muslim governor of North Africa, follows Tariq ibn Ziyad with an army of 18,000 as reinforcements for the conquest of Andalusia.

714: Pippin III (Pippin the Short) is born in Jupille, Belgium. The son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne, Pippin would capture Narbonne, the last Muslim stronghold in France, in 0759, effectively ending Muslim rule in France.

715: By this year, almost all of Spain is under Muslim control. The Muslim conquest of Spain took about three years, but the Christian reconquest would take around 460 years.

716: The city of Lisbon falls to Muslim forces.

717: Cordova (Qurtuba) becomes the capital of the Muslim territories in Andalusia (Spain).

717: Leo the Isaurian revolts against the usurper Theodosius III and takes the throne of the Byzantine Empire.

August 15, 717: The Second Siege of Constantinople begins as Caliph Suleiman dispatches a force of 120,000 soldiers under the command of his brother, Moslemah. Additional reinforcements, numbering around 100,000 troops with 1,800 galleys, arrive from Syria and Egypt, but are largely decimated by the Byzantines’ use of Greek Fire. The siege conditions deteriorate, with the Muslim forces suffering from starvation and harsh winter weather. Even the typically hostile Bulgarians send a force to intercept Muslim reinforcements from Adrianopolis.

August 15, 718: The Muslim forces abandon the Second Siege of Constantinople due to the insurmountable conditions and heavy losses, with an estimated 85% of their soldiers lost during the campaign. The failure of this siege weakens the Umayyad government significantly. The survival of the Byzantine Empire prevents a direct route for a Muslim invasion into Europe, forcing them to take a more challenging path across northern Africa and into Spain.

719: Muslim forces invade Septimania in southern France, establishing a foothold in the region known as Languedoc, which would later become famous as the epicenter of the Cathar heresy.

July 09, 721: A Muslim army, led by Al-Semah and which had crossed the Pyrenees, is defeated by the Franks near Toulouse. Al-Semah is killed and his forces, who had previously conquered Narbonne, are forced back into Spain.

722: At the Battle of Covadonga, Pelayo, a Visigoth noble and the first King of Asturias, achieves a significant Christian victory over a Muslim army near Covadonga. This victory marks a pivotal turning point in the Christian Reconquista.

724: Hisham ascends as the 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. Under Hisham, Muslim forces make the deepest incursions into Western Europe until being halted by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732.

724: Ambissa, Emir of Andalusia, leads Muslim forces in a raid on southern France, capturing the cities of Carcassonne and Nimes. Churches and monasteries are the primary targets in these raids, with holy objects taken, clerics enslaved or killed.

725: Muslim forces occupy Nimes, France.

730: The French cities of Narbonne and Avignon fall under Muslim control.

October 10, 732: At the Battle of Tours, Charles Martel and his forces of approximately 1,500 soldiers halt the advance of a much larger Muslim cavalry, estimated to number between 40,000 and 60,000 soldiers. This battle is often cited as a pivotal moment in preventing the spread of Muslim control into Europe.

735: Muslim forces seize control of the city of Arles.

737: Charles Martel’s brother, Childebrand, successfully besieges Avignon, driving out the Muslim occupants.

739: Childebrand continues his campaign against Muslim-held territories, retaking the cities of Narbonne, Beziers, Montpellier, and Nimes, culminating with the recapture of Marseille, one of the largest French cities still under Muslim control.

June 08, 741: Leo III the Isaurian, Byzantine Emperor, dies. Leo’s tactical prowess had been instrumental in repelling the second Arab Muslim siege of Constantinople in 0717, soon after he ascended to the throne.

October 22, 741: Charles Martel, also known as Charles the Hammer, passes away in Quierzy, located in present-day Aisne, France. As the Mayor of the Palace of the kingdom of the Franks, Charles was recognized for leading a force of Christians to repel a Muslim raiding party near Poitiers (or Tours), a battle that many historians believe was a decisive moment in halting the westward advance of Islam against Christianity.

April 04, 742: Charlemagne, the founder of the Frankish Empire, is born.

743: Hisham, the 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty, dies. His reign saw Muslim forces making their deepest incursions into Western Europe, ultimately halted by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732.

750: The Arabian Nights, a compilation of stories penned during the reign of the Abbasids, comes to exemplify the lifestyle and administration of this Persian-influenced government.

750 – 850: This period sees the establishment of the Four Orthodox Schools of Islamic Law.

750: The Abbasids seize control of the Islamic world, barring Spain, which falls under the control of a descendant of the Umayyad family, and shift the capital to Baghdad, Iraq. The Abbasid Caliphate endures until 1258.

September 755: Abd al-Rahman of the Umayyad dynasty flees to Spain to evade the Abbasids, and he lays the foundation for the “Golden Caliphate” in Spain.

756: The Emirate of Cordova is founded by Umayyad refugee Abd al-Rahman I with the intention of reviving the ousted Umayyad caliphate, toppled in 750 by the Abbasids. Cordova gains independence from the Abbasid Empire, signifying the first major political division within Islam.

759: Arab forces relinquish control of Narbonne, France, their furthest and final conquest into Frankish territory. By capturing this city, Pippin III (Pippin the Short) quells the Muslim incursions in France.

768: Charlemagne, the son of Pepin, succeeds his father to become one of the most significant European rulers in medieval history.

September 24, 768: Pippin III (Pippin the Short) dies at Saint Denis. Pippin, the son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne, captured Narbonne, the last Muslim stronghold in France, in 759, expelling Islam from France.

778: Charlemagne, King of the Franks and the future Holy Roman Emperor, is invited by a group of Arab leaders in northeastern Spain to attack Abd al-Rahman I, ruler of the Emirate of Cordova. Charlemagne only manages to reach as far as Saragossa before retreating. During his return march through the Pyrenees, his forces are attacked by Basques. This encounter results in the death of Roland, the war leader from Breton, whose legacy lives on in the epic poem “Chanson de Roland.”

785: The Great Mosque in Cordoba, located in Muslim-controlled Spain, is constructed.

788: Abd al-Rahman I, the founder of the Umayyad Emirate of Cordova, dies, and his successor becomes Hisham I.

792: Hisham I, the emir of Cordova, calls for a Jihad against the non-believers in Andalusia and France. Many heed his call, including those from as far away as Syria, crossing the Pyrenees to bring France under control. Despite causing destruction in cities like Narbonne, the invasion is ultimately halted at Carc

813: The Muslim forces conducted a raid on the port of Civitavecchia, near Rome, further demonstrating the reach of their maritime power during this period.

April 04, 814: Charlemagne, founder of the Frankish Empire and a significant figure in the shaping of medieval Europe, passed away. His legacy would extend far beyond his lifetime, with his reign serving as a blueprint for future European emperors.

816: A rebellion occurred in Gascony, aided by the Moors, against the Frankish rule.

822: Abd al-Rahman II became the emir of Cordova, succeeding Al-Hakam. Abd al-Rahman II was known for his cultural and architectural patronage, enhancing the reputation of Cordova as a center of Islamic culture.

June 827: The Muslim invasion of Sicily commenced, which sought to establish Islamic rule on the island, a process that would require persistent efforts over the next 75 years.

831: The Muslim forces succeeded in capturing Palermo, a major city on the island of Sicily. The city became the capital under Muslim rule.

835: Ahmad Ibn Tultun, who would later establish the Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt and build the Great Mosque of Cairo, was born.

838: Muslim raiders carried out a devastating attack on the city of Marseille in France.

841: The Muslim forces captured Bari, the main Byzantine base in southeastern Italy.

846: Muslim raiders, having sailed from Africa up the Tiber river, attacked the outskirts of Rome. This marked a significant strike into the heart of Christian Europe.

849: In the Battle of Ostia, Christian forces, aided by a significant storm, defeated a Muslim fleet sent by the Aghlabid monarch Muhammad to attack Rome.

850 – 851: The fervor for Christian martyrdom intensified in Muslim Cordova, resulting in the execution of several Christian figures who had made derogatory remarks about the Prophet Muhammed.

852: The reign of Abd al-Rahman II, the emir of Cordova known for his cultural contributions, ended.

858: Muslim raiders launched an attack on the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.

859: The Sicilian city of Castrogiovanni (modern Enna) fell to Muslim invaders after a fierce resistance.

866: Emperor Louis II of the Carolingian dynasty traveled from Germany to southern Italy to counteract the Muslim invasions in the region.

868: The Sattarid dynasty, which would continue until 930, extended Muslim control across most of Persia. Concurrently, the Tulunid dynasty emerged in Egypt and Syria.

869: Malta, strategically located in the Mediterranean, was captured by Arab forces.

870: The significant Sicilian city of Syracuse fell to the Muslim invaders after a month-long siege.

876: Muslim forces conducted a raid in the region of Campagna, Italy.

879: The Seljuk Empire was established, uniting Mesopotamia and a significant portion of Persia under its rule.

880: Under the leadership of Emperor Basil, the Byzantines managed to recapture lands in Italy that had been previously occupied by the Arabs.

884: The death of Ahmad Ibn Tulun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty, marked the end of an era in Egypt. In his time, he had managed to establish a significant and independent power base in the region.

898: Abd al-Rahman III was born. He would be known as one of the greatest Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia. Under his rule, Cordova would become a significant center of Islamic power.

900: The Fatimid dynasty of Egypt extended their control over North Africa, which would last until 972.

902: The Muslim conquest of Sicily culminated with the capture of the last Christian stronghold, Taorminia. This marked the beginning of a period of Islamic rule that would last for 264 years.

905: The Tulunid dynasty in Egypt came to an end when the Abbasid caliphate reestablished control over Egypt and Syria.

909: Control over Sicily transitioned to the Fatimid dynasty, which also assumed control of Egypt. The Fatimids claimed descent from Fatima, daughter of Prophet Muhammed, and Ali bin Abi Talib. The Fatimid rule over Egypt would last until they were overthrown by the Ayyubid dynasty and Saladin in 1171.

911: In a strategic move, Muslim forces took control of all the passes in the Alps between France and Italy, effectively severing the main route between these two countries.

912: Abd al-Rahman III ascends to the role of Umayyad Caliph in Andalusia, marking the beginning of a period of significant development and expansion in the region.

916: At Garigliano, Muslim invaders met a formidable combined force consisting of the Greek and German emperors, alongside various Italian city-states. The battle ended in a defeat for the Muslims, marking the end of Muslim raids in Italy.

920: Muslim forces expanded their influence by crossing the Pyrenees and entering Gascony, reaching the gates of Toulouse.

929: Abd al-Rahman III elevated the Emirate of Cordova into an independent caliphate, removing even the nominal control previously held by Baghdad.

935 – 969: Egypt was under the rule of the Ikhshidid dynasty.

939: The city of Madrid was recaptured from Muslim control.

940: Hugh, the count of Provence, made an agreement with the Moors in St. Tropez in which he offered them protection in return for their keeping the Alpine passes closed to his rival, Berenger.

953: Emperor Otto I, facing disruptions to merchant caravans going in and out of Italy due to Muslim raiders in the Alpine passes, sent representatives to Caliph Abd al-Rahman III in Cordova to request intervention.

961: The death of Abd al-Rahman III marked the end of an era. Considered one of the greatest Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia, his leadership had transformed Cordova into a powerful center of Islamic learning. He was succeeded by Abdallah, known for his ruthless tactics and his harsh treatment of non-converts.

961: The Byzantines, under the command of general Nicephorus Phokas, recaptured Crete from Muslim forces that had previously fled Cordova.

965: Cyprus was reconquered from the Muslims by Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Phokas. Additionally, Grenoble was also recaptured from Muslim control.

969: Egypt fell to the Fatimid dynasty, a Shi’ite caliphate, after they took control from the Ikhshidids. This change marked the beginning of Fatimid rule, which would last until 1171. In the same year, Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas reconquered Antioch from the Arabs.

972: The Fatimid dynasty extended their control by conquering North Africa. In France, Muslims in the Sisteron district surrendered to Christian forces and their leader requested baptism.

981: Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir defeated Ramiro III, the king of Leon, at Rueda and forced him to pay tribute to the Caliph of Cordova.

985: Barcelona was sacked by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, adding to his series of victories against Christian forces.

994: The historic monastery of Monte Cassino was targeted and destroyed by Arab forces for the second time.

July 03, 997: Almanzor, a prominent Muslim military leader, led forces out of Cordova to capture Christian territories in the north.

August 11, 997: Arriving at the city of Compostela, Almanzor’s forces found it evacuated. Almanzor ordered the city to be burned to the ground.

998: The city of Zara, a port on the Adriatic Sea, was conquered by Venice, further shifting the balance of power in the region.

1000: The Seljuk Turkish Empire was established by Seljuk, an Oghuz Turkish bey (chieftain). Originally from the Caspian Sea steppe region, the Seljuks became the progenitors of the Western Turks, who would go on to populate present-day Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan.

August 08, 1002: Almansour Ibn Abi Aamir, ruler of Al-Andalus, died while returning from a raid in the Rioja region.

1004: The Italian city of Pisa was sacked by Arab raiders.

1007: Isaac I Comnenus, future Byzantine emperor, was born. He would go on to found the Comneni dynasty and his governmental reforms likely contributed to the extended survival of the Byzantine Empire.

1009: Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the Druze sect and sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulcher and all Christian buildings in Jerusalem. In Europe, it was rumored that a “Prince of Babylon” had incited this destruction, leading to persecution and massacres of Jewish communities.

1009: Sulaimann, grandson of Abd al-Rahman III, returned over 200 fortresses to the Castilians in exchange for food supplies for his army.

1012: Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the demolition of all Christian and Jewish houses of worship within his territories. The same year, Berber forces seized Cordova and ordered half of the population to be executed.

1013: Jews were expelled from the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordova during the rule of Sulaimann.

1015: Sardinia was conquered by Arab Muslim forces.

1016: The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem was partially damaged by earthquakes.

1020: Merchants from Amalfi and Salerno were permitted by the Egyptian Caliph to construct a hospice in Jerusalem, which eventually evolved into The Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem.

1021: Caliph Al-Hakim proclaimed his divinity and founded the Druze sect.

1022: Several heretics belonging to the Cathar sect were discovered in Toulouse and executed.

1023: Muslim forces ousted the Berber rulers from Cordova and installed Abd er-Rahman V as caliph.

1025: The Byzantine Empire began to experience a decline in its power.

1026: Believing that the Day of Judgment had arrived, Richard II of Normandy led several hundred armed men on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, though Turkish control of the region hindered their progress.

1027: Byzantine leaders replaced the Frankish protectorate over Christian interests in Jerusalem and began the reconstruction of the Holy Sepulcher.

1029: Alp Arslan, “The Lion Hero”, was born. He was the son of Togrul Beg, the conqueror of Baghdad, and the great-grandson of Seljuk, founder of the Seljuk Turkish Empire.

1031: The Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba fell. The same year, the Krak des Chevaliers was built under the order of the emir of Aleppo.

1033: The region of Castile was retaken from Arab control.

1035: The Byzantines landed in Sicily, but made no attempt to wrest the island from Muslim control.

1038: The Seljuk Turks established their presence in Persia.

1042: This year marked the beginning of the rise of the Seljuk Turks.

1045 – 1099: This period saw the life of Ruy Diaz de Vivar, also known as El Cid (Arabic for “lord”), a national hero of Spain. He was particularly renowned for his efforts to expel the Moors from Spain.

1050: Duke Bohemond I, also known as Bohemond Of Taranto, was born. As one of the leaders of the First Crusade, Bohemond was pivotal in capturing Antioch, earning him the title Prince of Antioch (1098 – 1101, 1103 – 04).

1050: Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos oversaw the restoration of the Holy Sepulcher complex in Jerusalem.

1054: During a famine in Egypt, al Mustansir, the 8th Fatimid caliph, was forced to seek food and commercial aid from Italy and the Byzantine Empire.

1055: The Seljuk Turks took control of Baghdad.

1056: The Almoravid Dynasty, a group of zealous Berber Muslims known as “those who line up in defense of the faith,” began its ascent to power. They would rule North Africa and Spain until 1147.

1061: Roger Guiscard led a large Norman force to Sicily, capturing the city of Masara. However, the Norman reconquest of Sicily would take another 30 years to complete.

1063: Alp Arslan succeeded his father, Togrul Beg, as ruler of the Baghdad Caliphate and the Seljuk Turks.

1064-1091: The Normans successfully retook Sicily from the Muslims.

1064: Christian Armenia fell to the Seljuk Turks.

1067: Romanus IV Diogenes became the Byzantine Emperor.

1068: Alp Arslan invaded the Byzantine Empire but was repelled by Romanus IV Diogenes after three campaigns. It was not until 1070 that the Turks were driven back across the Euphrates river.

1070: The Seljuk Turks seized Jerusalem from the Fatimids. Their rule was less tolerant than that of the Fatimids, and Christian pilgrims began reporting incidents of persecution and oppression upon returning to Europe.

1070: Brother Gerard, a leader of the Benedictine monks and nuns who operated the hospices in Jerusalem, began organizing The Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem as a military force to actively protect Christian pilgrims.

1071: The Normans seized the last Byzantine territories in Italy.

1071-1085: The Seljuk Turks overtook most of Syria and Palestine.

August 19, 1071: During the Battle of Manzikert, Alp Arslan led an army of Seljuk Turks against the Byzantine Empire near Lake Van. Despite being outnumbered, the Turks captured the fortresses of Akhlat and Manzikert before Byzantine Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes could respond. Although Diogenes recaptured Akhlat, the siege of Manzikert fell through when a Turkish relief force arrived and Andronicus Ducas, an enemy of Diogenes, refused to engage in combat. After being captured and later released, Diogenes was assassinated upon his return to Constantinople. The defeat at Manzikert and the subsequent civil wars left Asia Minor susceptible to Turkish invasion.

1072: Palermo was captured by Norman adventurers Roger I and Robert Guiscard, who allowed the inhabitants to practice their religion and maintain a degree of autonomy.

December 15, 1072: Malik Shah I, son of Alp Arslan, succeeded his father as the Seljuk Sultan.

1073: The Seljuk Turks took over Ankara.

July 1074: El Cid married Jimena, the niece of Alfonso IV of Castile and daughter of the Count of Oviedo.

1078: The Seljuk Turks captured Nicaea, which would change hands three more times before finally falling under Turkish control again in 1086.

1079: During the Battle of Cabra, El Cid led his forces to a significant victory over Emir Abd Allah of Granada.

1080: The Order of the Hospital of St. John was founded in Italy, dedicated to safeguarding a pilgrim hospital in Jerusalem.

1080: An Armenian state was established in Cilicia, a district on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor, by refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of their Armenian homeland. Despite being a Christian kingdom surrounded by hostile Muslim states and lacking a good relationship with the Byzantine Empire, “Armenia Minor” provided critical assistance to European Crusaders.

1081 – 1118: Alexius I Comnenus reigned as the Byzantine emperor.

1081: El Cid, exiled by Alfonso IV of Castile, became a mercenary for the Moorish king of Zaragosa, al-Mu’tamin, and later served his successor, al-Mu’tamin II.

1082: Ibn Tumart, founder of the Amohad Dynasty, was born in the Atlas mountains.

1084: The Seljuk Turks captured Antioch, a city of strategic importance.

October 25, 1085: Alfonso VI expelled the Moors from Toledo, Spain.

October 23, 1086: The Battle of Zallaca (Sagrajas) resulted in a defeat for the Spanish forces under Alfonso VI of Castile at the hands of the Moors and their allies, the Almorivids. Despite an agreement to leave Andalusia in Moorish hands, Yusef I ibn Tashufin, leader of the Almorivids, planned to make Andalusia an African colony ruled by the Almorivids in Morocco.

1087: After a significant defeat at Zallaqa, Alfonso VI put aside his pride and recalled El Cid from exile.

September 13, 1087: John II Comnenus, future Byzantine emperor, was born.

1088: Patzinak Turks began to establish settlements between the Danube and the Balkans.

March 12, 1088: Urban II was elected pope. A strong supporter of the Gregorian reforms, Urban would be the one to initiate the First Crusade.

1089: Byzantine forces seized control of the island of Crete.

1090: Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravids, overtook Granada.

1091: The last Arabic stronghold in Sicily fell to the Normans.

1091: The Almoravids captured Cordova (Qurtuba).

1092: After the death of Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I, the Seljuks’ capital was moved from Iconjium to Smyrna, and the empire fragmented into several smaller states.

May 1094: El Cid took Valencia from the Moors, creating his own kingdom on the Mediterranean coast. His territory was only nominally subservient to Alfonso VI of Castile and housed both Christian and Muslim inhabitants.

August 1094: The Almoravids, originating from Morocco, arrived near Cuarte and laid siege to Valencia with 50,000 men. However, El Cid broke the siege and forced the Almoravids to retreat. This marked the first Christian victory against the fierce African fighters.

November 18, 1095: Pope Urban II initiated the Council of Clermont. Ambassadors from Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, seeking assistance against the Muslims, were warmly received.

First Crusade (1096-99)

Spring 1096: The Peasants’ (or People’s) Crusade embarked from Europe. Three of their armies did not make it past Hungary.

Spring-Summer 1096: Crusaders massacred German Jews on their way to the Holy Land, believing that the fight against Christ’s enemies should start at home.

August 1096: Emperor Alexius of Constantinople transported the Peasants’ Crusade across the Bosporus.

Late Summer 1096: First Crusade leaders left Europe.

October 1096: The Peasants’ Crusade was destroyed in Anatolia by the Turks.

Spring 1097: First Crusade contingents gathered in Constantinople.

End of April 1097: The First Crusade began the march in Anatolia to Nicaea.

May 14 – June 19, 1097: Nicaea was under siege.

July 1, 1097: Battle of Dorylaeum (Eskisehir) took place.

October 21, 1097 – June 3, 1098: The Crusaders laid siege to Antioch.

December 31, 1097: The First Battle of Harenc took place. Turkish prisoners were dragged before the walls of Antioch and beheaded.

February 9, 1098: The Second Battle of Harenc occurred.

February, 1098: Emperor Alexius’ general Tacitius abandoned the siege of Antioch.

March 10, 1098: The citizens of Edessa handed control of the city over to Baldwin.

June 1, 1098: Stephen of Blois and a large group of French crusaders fled the siege of Antioch, spreading news of the arrival of Emir Kerboga of Mosul and his 75,000-strong army.

June 3, 1098: Antioch fell to Bohemond and the remaining crusaders.

June 5-9, 1098: Kerboga’s army reached Antioch, turning Bohemond from besieger into besieged.

June 14, 1098: Peter Bartholomew discovered what was believed to be the Holy Lance, the weapon that pierced Jesus during his crucifixion. This discovery greatly boosted the Crusaders’ morale.

June 28, 1098: The Battle of Orontes saw the Crusaders force Kerboga to lift the siege of Antioch.

November 27 – December 11, 1098: The Crusaders seized control of M’arrat-an-Numan.

January 13, 1099: After a disagreement with Bohemond over the Crusaders’ future strategy, Raymond of Toulouse led the majority of the Crusaders away from Antioch and towards Jerusalem.

February 14, 1099: Raymond of Toulouse initiated the unsystematic siege of Arqah, in the vicinity of Tripoli.

Late March, 1099: The siege of Arqah received reinforcements with the arrival of Godfrey of Bouillon and Robert of Flanders.

April 20, 1099: Peter Bartholomew, the individual who claimed to have found the Holy Lance, succumbed to his injuries after attempting an ordeal by fire to confirm the relic’s authenticity.

Mid-May, 1099: Raymond discontinued the siege of Arqah and directed his forces towards Jerusalem.

June 7, 1099: The Crusader forces arrived at the walls of Jerusalem.

June 13, 1099: Initial attempts by the Crusaders to infiltrate Jerusalem failed.

July 15, 1099: In a major coordinated operation of the First Crusade, Godfrey’s troops managed to ascend the walls of Jerusalem, facilitated by a vast siege tower and ladders. Upon breaching the city, the Crusaders executed a large portion of the Fatimid Muslim garrison, along with numerous Muslim and Jewish civilians. Godfrey was subsequently chosen as the Guardian of Jerusalem.

August 12, 1099: The Battle of Ascalon took place. The Fatimid forces were reportedly unprepared, leading to a swift conclusion to the battle. Robert and Tancred took possession of the abandoned camp and its treasures. Following this, most of the Crusaders returned to Europe, having fulfilled their pilgrimage vows. Jerusalem’s diminished knight population was gradually bolstered by newcomers, motivated by the success of the initial Crusade. Ascalon, however, remained under Fatimid control and served as a base for annual invasions of the Kingdom of Jerusalem until its eventual capture by the Crusaders in 1153.

1100: Baldwin, count of Edessa, evaded an ambush near Beirut and declared himself the King of Jerusalem.

1104: The Crusaders’ eastward progression was halted following a Muslim victory at Harran.

1108: Near Tel Bashir, two alliances consisting of Crusaders and Muslims faced each other.

1109: Tripoli succumbed to the Crusaders after a protracted siege lasting 2000 days.

1110: The cities of Beirut and Saida were conquered by the Crusaders.

1111: Ibn al-Khashab, the qadi of Aleppo, incited a riot against the caliph of Baghdad, demanding action against the Frankish occupation.

1112: The city of Tyre successfully resisted a siege.

1115: A combined force of Muslim and Frankish princes from Syria repelled an army dispatched by the sultan.

1119: The Crusaders suffered a major defeat at Sarmada, inflicted by Ilghazi, the ruler of Aleppo.

1124: The Crusaders captured Tyre, effectively controlling the entire coastline with the exception of Ascalon.

1125: The Assassins sect murdered Ibn al-Khashab.

1128: A Crusader campaign against Damascus ended in failure. Zangi ruled Aleppo.

1135: Zangi’s attempt to seize Damascus was unsuccessful.

1137: Zangi captured and subsequently released Fulk, the king of Jerusalem.

1140: An alliance was formed between Damascus and Jerusalem against Zangi.


1144: The city of Edessa is captured by Zangi, leading to the fall of the first of the four Frankish states in the East.

1146: Zangi meets a violent end and his son Nur al-Din assumes power in Aleppo.

1148: A second Frankish expedition, led by German Emperor Conrad and French King Louis VII, suffers a crushing defeat at Damascus.

1154: Nur al-Din extends his dominion to Damascus, bringing Muslim Syria under unified control.

1163-1169: During the conflict for control over Egypt, Shirkuh, a vassal of Nur al-Din, finally emerges victorious. His reign as vizier is short-lived, lasting only two months, before he is succeeded by his nephew Saladin (Salahuddin).

1171: Saladin, the sole ruler of Egypt, announces the dissolution of the Fatimid caliphate, placing him in opposition to Nur al-Din.

1174: Following Nur al-Din’s death, Saladin captures Damascus.

1183: Saladin adds Aleppo to his growing realm, uniting Egypt and Syria under his rule.


1187: This year marks a significant victory for the Islamic forces. Saladin decisively defeats the Crusader armies at the Battle of Hattin, near Lake Tiberias, subsequently reclaiming Jerusalem and a majority of the territories previously held by the Crusaders. The Crusaders now only retain control over Tyre, Tripoli, and Antioch.

1190-92: Saladin suffers a defeat at Acre. With the intervention of Richard the Lionheart, the King of England, the Crusaders recapture several cities from the Sultan, although Jerusalem remains elusive.

1193: Saladin passes away in Damascus at the age of 55. After a period of civil unrest, his empire is consolidated under the leadership of his brother, al-Adil.


1204: Constantinople falls to the Crusaders, followed by the pillaging of the city.


1218-21: The Crusaders invade Egypt, seize Damietta, and advance towards Cairo. However, Sultan al-Kamil, son of al-Adil, successfully drives them back.


1229: Al-Kamil surrenders Jerusalem to Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, leading to widespread outrage in the Arab world.

1244: The Crusaders lose control over Jerusalem permanently.


1248-50: King Louis IX of France invades Egypt but is defeated and taken prisoner. The Ayyubid dynasty collapses and is replaced by the rule of the Mamluks.

1258: The Mongol leader Hulegu, Genghis Khan’s grandson, ravages Baghdad, causing mass civilian casualties and the death of the last Abbasid caliph.

1260: After seizing Aleppo and Damascus, the Mongol army is defeated at the Battle of Ayn Jalut in Palestine. Baybars assumes control over the Mamluk sultanate.

1268: Baybars conquers Antioch, which had allied itself with the Mongols.

1270: Louis IX succumbs near Tunis during a failed invasion attempt.

1289: Mamluk Sultan Qalawun captures Tripoli.

1291: Sultan Khalil, Qalawun’s son, takes Acre, marking the end of the two-century Crusader presence in the East.